February 21, 2013

Asking Sociological Questions

Peter_kaufmanBy Peter Kaufman

I often tell students that I hope they leave my classes with more questions than answers. This statement may seem counterintuitive. Our typical model of education is based on the idea that students’ heads should be filled with knowledge such as definitions, dates, and all sorts of data. The idea that students would finish their coursework with more question marks than periods goes against the conventional wisdom of schooling.

By making this statement I am suggesting that if students want to take what they’ve learned in class and extend it into their social worlds then they will need to know how to ask questions. If they are merely satisfied with the knowledge that has been instilled in them then they have probably not been challenged intellectually. More important, or more troubling, leaving a class without any lingering questions is likely to inhibit their ability to be life-long learners.


On the surface, it may seem rather simple to ask questions and to some extent this is correct. After all, we all know what words we use to begin a question: who, what, where, why, when and how. But in teaching students to ask questions I try to distinguish between asking questions and asking sociological questions.

This distinction is crucial because if we are not asking sociological questions then the answers and explanations that result will also be non-sociological. Non-sociological explanations are all too common in our society. Their defining feature is that they have a singular focus on the individual and a corresponding disregard for the structural dimensions of the issue. Non-sociological explanations routinely blame individuals for their actions instead of pointing to larger external factors. 

Let me try to illustrate this point with three examples that relate specifically to the lives of students.

            1. Intimate Partner Violence. When we hear about a typical case of intimate partner violence (female victim, male perpetrator) the first question that many people ask is: Why didn’t she leave? Why did she stay in a relationship that was physically and emotionally abusive? Questions such as these put the blame squarely on the shoulders of the individual. The not-so-subtle insinuation is that she should not have allowed this to happen to her. 

As a sociologist, we might ask different questions: Why did one person think it was appropriate to abuse another? What is about our society that makes intimate partner violence common? Do the lack of structural supports (i.e., legal, financial, familial, occupational, or educational) contribute to individuals staying in unhealthy situations? Are there social stigmas attached to “coming out” as a victim of intimate partner violence? These sociological questions shift our focus (and the implicit blame) from the individual victim to the larger social structure.

  Ashs-students-studying           2. Academic Motivation. As an educator, one of the biggest complaints I often read and hear about is students’ lack of academic motivation. The questions that inevitably arise in these discussions are focused directly on the students: Why don’t students today want to learn? Why are students disengaged? Why do they just seem to go through the motions? Why are they more interested in texting in class than paying attention to the material that is being taught? These questions assume that students today are opposed to learning and they often result in negative and denigrating statements about students. (Photo credit: Wikipedia Commons)

A more sociological question might ask why should students want to learn? What aspects of the educational process encourage them to be engaged, excited, and motivated learners? We might also wonder how they have been socialized to not want to learn, to reject their natural inclination for curiosity and exploration. Instead of assuming that there is something innately wrong with today’s students these questions attempt to pinpoint the educational structures that discourage intellectual inquisitiveness and engaged learning.

            3. Student Debt. The debt for college-student loans has recently reached the 1 trillion dollar Ques2mark. This staggering number has prompted a barrage of questions about college. Some of prevalent questions we hear are: Is college for everyone? Are we letting too many people into college who just can’t afford to be there? Are some students better off bypassing the high cost of college and enrolling in vocational training?

 From a sociological perspective, these sorts of questions are problematic on two accounts. First, they fail to question why the cost of college has increased so dramatically over the past twenty years. The cost of higher education has gone up over 400% since 1985 while the consumer price index has only risen about 100%. And while the cost of attending college has skyrocketed public expenditures for higher education have not come close to keeping pace. In fact, in 2011, state-level financial support fell to its lowest rate in 25 years.   

The second problem with the typical questions about the student debt—and whether or not college should be accessible to everyone—is that these sorts of questions have some not-so-subtle racial and class-based undertones. If college became more selective to only those who could afford it then low-income, non-whites would largely be the ones excluded. These individuals would not just miss out on the opportunity to attend college; additionally, they would miss out on one of the main opportunities for upward social mobility.

As sociologists Paul Attwell and David Lavin demonstrate in their book, Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off Across the Generations?, universal access to higher education reduces economic disparities and has lasting positive effects across generations. The authors conclude that the open admissions policies of the City University of New York (CUNY) allowed women from underprivileged backgrounds the ability to attend college and secure the cultural and social capital to foster academic success among their children.

The three examples in this post are intended to offer a taste of what it means to ask sociological questions. Sociological questions consider the structural dimension of the issue and strive to understand the bigger picture. We ask sociological questions because the individual-based, victim-blaming questions that are typical in our society do not tell us the full story. 

Even if you’ve never asked sociological questions it’s quite easy to do. Just begin with a typical individual-based question (i.e., is college for everyone) but before answering it follow it up with another question (or two) starting with the words why, who, or how (i.e., if college is not for everyone then who is it for). If you do this you will be well on your way to understanding the world sociologically.           


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Learning to ask sociological questions shifted my understanding of social life, and inspired me to become a teacher. In my classes (and everyday life), I encourage students to explore the intersection of our personal lives and larger public issues. Sociological questioning draws on the most fruitful aspects of sociology, and also challenges us to unravel the myriad ways humans are interconnected to nature, animals, things, and ultimately one another. Thank you for your words, Peter. You continue to be an inspiration.

How would a sociologist answer this question? The topic of discussion is: drugs/alcohol use/misuse. How would George Herbert Mead (with a little help from Weber) approach your topic through Symbolic Interactionism? Post how you think Mead/Weber and his colleagues might discuss this topic and what evidence they could present.

How do you think sociologists could help the government decide what to do?
Think of the big issues facing Britain today.
Make a list a list of questions that you think sociologists could help to answer.

Hi. I am in desperate need of a sociologist. (Excuse my english) You see, I am from Caracas, Venezuela. I imagine you are familiar with the crisis we are going trough.

This past few days violence and human right violations have escalated at an alarming rate. I am starting a campaign that consists on going to the "barrios", which are extremely poor communities to talk to the people and try to get them to join our fight for freedom and democracy.

The poor class in the country, which represents most of the country (extreme poverty, E class is 44%), is not getting involved. They are not thinking about tomorrow, because they live in today. If they don't go to work today, they don't make money for public transportation, medicines or food to eat today. They have to struggle everyday to get by.

Chavez, made sure to create a gap amongst classes. He taught them to hate "capitalism" and people with higher incomes.

So, I am trying to get them to think about tomorrow. I am organizing visits to the barrios. Having "wealthy" or, people with better opportunities to loose their fear and go talk to the poor. Find common ground on the problems we are having and try to get them to wake up, and realize that if they don't fight for tomorrow, today is just no going to be worth living.

Here is where you come in. I need tips on how to make the approach. how to seem more likeable. From clothes, to key words. I know it is hard to do so when you are not familiar with our culture. But lately it is hard to trust people in my country because you never know if someone might call the police on you for something as simple as this, or buying medicines for the students that are protesting. We are living in a dictatorship.

I appreciate anything you can do to help us.. God knows we need the help.

If you have any questions please let me know, Elisa.

I'm sure how to answer this question?
families are clearly changing in post industrial and post modern society on balance do you think they are becoming weaker?

Can someone answer this question?

Every society is concerned about fostering moral character in children and forming responsible citizens. Controversy often accompanies these interests because adults do not always agree about what moral character is and how to cultivate it. Considering the concepts studied in Moral education, discuss what exactly do children need to learn in order to be engaged citizens and how do children develop moral character through school system and lived experience?

in what way is labeling theory helps the society?

Hello im LeAnn and i am doing a research paper in my english class and we got to choose our topic. I choose sociology and i have a few questions for you
How do you tell the difference between sociology and psychology?
What made you want to learn about sociology?
What topics in sociology do you mainly like to research?
What could people in your career field do to help the government?
What is the difference between society and culture?
What is white privilage?
What are some different sociology topics?

Thank you

What is Industrial Progress to society? What do you believe are the opinions people have of this "progress"?

I do not agree that asking why a woman stays in an abusive situation means that we are blaming her. I believe the question if we are not looking to blame her, can be a sociological question. Did she stay because of mental abuse? Does she believe that this is normal behavior? Or as you said was there a lack of structural support in the individual's life? There was a time when I had to ask myself why allowed myself to be physically abused and when I did it stopped.

I have no questions Thank You, This as a great course!!!!

how far do sociologists agree that the welfare state is helpful to everyone?

I have been questioned both ways in an abusive relationship. Both the right questions and the wrong questions. I had to realize love isn't one sided and I deserved better. This was a good article.

name five sociological questions that are relevant to sociologist in the analysis of education

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