October 31, 2016

The Sociology of Calling Other People Stupid

Peter kaufman 2014By Peter Kaufman

Accusations of people acting stupidly or being stupid have been common in the news lately. Donald Trump has been called “too stupid” for U. S. voters and his supporters are often accused of stupidity for believing things that are “demonstrably wrong or idiotic.” Hillary Clinton has been called the “stupidest person” for setting up a private e-mail address and using it for work. And Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg said that if protesters like Colin Kaepernick “want to be stupid” then that’s their decision (she later expressed regret for this comment).

These are just some of the high profile examples of people using the term “stupidity” to evaluate the decisions and actions of others. In the course of our everyday lives, most of us probably hear the words stupid and stupidity multiple times a day. We invoke these terms not only to define people and their actions, but also to describe situations that we find frustrating or annoying: that stupid ATM machine ate my card; this stupid cell-phone battery doesn’t even last a whole day; or our school has the stupidest dress-code policy.

The simple definition of stupid is to be unintelligent and to have or show a lack of ability to learn and understand things. To be stupid is to not be sensible or logical. Building on this definition, stupidity is defined as acting in an unintelligent manner or making decisions that lack reason or are uninformed.

As these definitions suggest, being stupid or demonstrating stupidity are most often used in response to the actions or decisions of individuals. When we refer to objects, institutions, laws, and customs as stupid, this process is known as reification—attributing human qualities to non-human things. Although we might be able use sociological theories such as McDonaldization to explain the stupidity of an ATM machine eating your debit card, for the purposes of this post I am interested in analyzing the strategies of social interaction that may be at play when we describe others as stupid.

Calling people stupid or pointing out their stupidity are generally recognized as acts of condescending judgment. We disapprove of what others did, why they did it, or even how they did it, and so we call them or their actions stupid as a way to reflect our disbelief or disgust. In this sense, the act of naming the behavior of others as stupid is a simple way to vent frustration and express displeasure.

But calling someone stupid is not just a mechanism for psychic or psychological relief. Although we may feel better or even superior when we lash out like this, it may not be the only reason we do it. There may also be underlying sociological components at work here. A possible explanation is that calling someone stupid is an attempt to reinforce the boundaries of group norms and solidify our social (or collective) identities.

If you think about it, one of the underlying sentiments we are suggesting when we call someone stupid is: “Why can’t you just act like the rest of us?” We are shocked that others could act so unintelligently because these actions fall outside the expectations of normative behavior. It is hard for us to understand how someone could act this way when everyone else, or at least most of us “normal” folks, does not engage in these sorts of uninformed thoughtless actions.      

In addition to identifying norm-breaking behavior, categorizing others as stupid might also be an attempt to secure our social or collective identities. Calling someone stupid is no doubt often understood as a patronizing insult; however, it can also be a not-so-subtle plea to bring someone back into the fold of the social group. The underlying sentiment, “why can’t you just act like the rest of us,” also may contain within it an expression of concern. If someone with whom we align ourselves is acting stupidly, then our collective identity is potentially soiled and threatened by their actions.

We can see these sociological themes playing out today in the political arena. Consider the example of Donald Trump’s supporters being called stupid. We often hear this sentiment expressed when Trump’s supporters defend the presidential candidate by making uninformed comments about Blacks, Muslims, Jews, women, or about widespread voter fraud, international conspiracy theories, and immigration.

Calling Trump’s supporters stupid for making these comments may be an act of exasperation because many people find it hard to believe that someone can think these things.

However, it is also an act of desperation because there is a desire for people in this country to not believe that others could hold these views. If you feel proud to be an American, and if being an American means that you embrace things like democracy, equality, justice, freedom of religion, tolerance, and understanding, then someone who speaks against or denies these things is breaking the norms of what it means to be an American. Moreover, as fellow citizens of this country, these people are an implicit threat to your collective identity as an American.

In effect, calling Trump’s supporters stupid is a disdainful yet shorthanded way of saying: “Don’t you know what this country stands for? Don’t you understand what it means to be an American? Why are you giving the rest of us a bad name through your thoughts and actions? Please come to your senses and join us in supporting our shared American values and norms.”     

If you think the example of Trump’s supporters is unconvincing, or just plain stupid, then consider the significant relationships in your life. You probably had times when you were called, or you called someone close to you, stupid. It may have been a parent, a sibling, a significant other, or a close friend. In these instances, it is likely that the word stupid was used as way to express dismay with the actions that were taken, to correct these actions and ensure that they would not happen again, and to point out that this is unacceptable behavior for the group of which you are a part. And as further proof that calling someone close to you stupid is an attempt to reinforce norms and a solidify a collective identity, let’s not forget that the phrase “stop being so stupid” is often followed-up by “because you are embarrassing us.”

Presumably, all of us have called others stupid and have ourselves been called stupid many times over the course of our lives. Knowing that there may be sociological reasons for saying this may not make us less likely to use this phrase; however, it could help us understand that there is more to this utterance than serving as a condescending put down.

The sociological theories I offer here are just two attempts to understand the social foundations of calling someone stupid. There are certainly alternative explanations and some of these may even contradict my ideas. For example, an argument could be made that solidifying collective identities is indeed part of the equation but that we do this to reinforce the discourse of difference and not to bring others back into the flock.

Fortunately, or unfortunately depending on how you look at it, we have countless opportunities to analyze the sociology of calling others stupid. So the next time you are on the sending or receiving end of the label stupid think about why this word is being used, consider what deeper social functions it might serve, and try to come up with an informed, intelligent and sensible (i.e., not-stupid) explanation.


"When we refer to objects, institutions, laws, and customs as stupid, this process is known as reification — attributing human qualities to non-human things. "

>>> When we refer to objects, institutions, laws, and customs as stupid, this process is known as - DERISION

>>> ANTHROPOMORPHIZATION — attributing human qualities to non-human things. "

Then there's the possibility that one calls someone stupid because they really are stupid. Being stupid is not just an insult, it's real thing for a great many people in the world. Denying that fact makes you stupid.

This article made me think of my roommate and I. We are always calling each other stupid and mocking each others actions. Makes me think about why we do it to each other?

Thank you for the excellent article... I have noticed this behavior a lot from the followers of cults. Members of some specific cults are obsessed with calling others 'stupid' and 'idiot'.If you write a post regarding this in specific that would be great.

Some people adopt a set of beliefs when it is presented in a logical way. Because of the logically arranged details and nuances present in a particular belief system, they become interested in knowing more about it regardless of how true those beliefs are.. Once they get sufficient familiarity and expertise on that belief system, they automatically start looking down at others and also start calling people as 'stupid'... This is something that I have observed. Can you elaborate on this?

It takes one to know one, does it not? Labeling someone as stupid is futile and doesn't change anything. Asking someone why they did what they did, will allow room for both understanding and correcting. Thank you for the insight.

I so, so wish that others in fields of psychology, sociology, health, mental health and science would stop using their platforms for political rhetoric and passive aggressive implications. The "media" is a different story, journalists should know better, but everyone knows they don't. Those of us in fields of science, health, support, and mentoring/teaching have a responsibility to keep the focus on the actual topic, and keep personal political opinion where it belongs (under a rock).

Stupid is as stupid does.

I think the term "ignorant" is probably a better word.
You can still be an intelligent person but ignorant to certain things in the world. There's no pill that fixes stupid. But education on a particular subject can sometimes change one's ignorance on said topic.

Cynthia said it best on Feb 9th. Thought I was the only one who picked up on the anti-political agenda and the apparent embracing if an excuse to belittle people. Those who can't have a meaningful back and forth about facts resort to insulting derogatory name calling. It's just stupid!

Being Dyslexic and been told your stupid is crushing and opens up deep wounds of childhood trauma and abuse of being called stupid when in fact they are the most original and creative souls on the planet,,,,,,we are not programmed robots that fit in with the flock.

This article was very interesting but it did not explain the situation I am trying to understand. I am regularly called stupid by an older family member who tries to control my life and the family business. Calling people stupid to assert superiority doesn't seem like trying to preserve social norms or expressing disapproval. It seems like an act of jealousy or insecurity. What I would like to know is whether this person calls me stupid because she believes it is true or if she is aware of her real motives for putting me down.

It usually occurs when she interrupts me while I am speaking to give a condescending explanation of a word I used or if she explains common words and phrases to me while I am watching tv. When I say that I do not need help understanding basic things or, she gets aggressive amd calls me stupid in addition tp diagnosing me with mental illnesses that she associates with intellectual inferiority.

I believe this person acts out of a certain ignorance or poor memory, but it bothers me to be in an environment where I am said or thought to be stupid and treated accordingly. Does the author or anyone else know if people really think you are stupid when they say it in a derogatory manner as a defense for patronizing behavior?

Articles like this are disappointing and are a big part of why the country is so divided. If I thought a certain group of people were as described I wouldn't care for them either. I was hoping to actually learn about something other than the writers political views. The author admits calling people stupid is an act of judgment and desperation. It seems as if he knows that people within his collective identity bubble are using this term in this context, is embarrassed and is writing an article to excuse or stop them from doing so. The article claims certain people have thier "collective identity soiled" by people with other views and ideas.
"We often hear this sentiment expressed when Trump’s supporters defend the presidential candidate by making uninformed comments about Blacks, Muslims, Jews, women...." It assumes anyone not in the collective identity are uninformed and or hold racist bigoted views. I would love to know what comments the writer claims are "uninformed" I do not support bigotry and anyone, no matter who they support, can be uninformed. This shows clear prejudice against people who don't think the same. "Calling Trump’s supporters stupid for making these comments may be an act of exasperation because many people find it hard to believe that someone can think these things" This in itself seems rather judgmental and discriminatory. It definitely LACKS any "tolerance or understanding" by assuming and reenforcing the idea that people who have different political views lack to embrace American values.. "these people are an implicit threat to your collective identity as an American" Wow, just wow
This article is NOT "Everyday Sociology" and is defending hateful views and words used against anyone you disagree with. You would have to be blind not to see the hypocrisy that I've outlined above. I feel bad for anyone that fails to recognize this. Most, would hopefully conclude, that it is wrong to do so anyway. I choose not to call people (especially people I don't know) stupid because it's a rude insult but beyond that Its a mean sprited way of dismissing someone and shows a lack of respect and communication skills... ie "shut up, you're stupid" I believe it says exactly that about the person calling people stupid. If you really want to know why people call other people stupid read any other article except for this one. I don't recommend this site as it obviously has no problem pushing personal political opinion instead of fact. There are many articles about this backed by actual research and study.

So we live in a perfect world where everyone has the same level of intelligence and stupid doesn’t exist. Got it, thanks!

>>Then there's the possibility that one calls someone stupid because they really are stupid. Being stupid is not just an insult, it's real thing for a great many people in the world. Denying that fact makes you stupid.<<

In other words: "NO U!"

Looks like someone doesn't like being called out on their BS. This is a predictable knee-jerk reaction from the likes of a person whose motives have been exposed.

>>So we live in a perfect world where everyone has the same level of intelligence and stupid doesn’t exist. Got it, thanks!<<

Nice straw-womyn, Lulu!

Calling somebody "stupid" is in itself a crude insult that shows a lack of wit and a lack of creativity. That's why I often attribute this insult to those with low intelligence themselves. I see it as nothing more than a schoolyard insult. Intelligence is not always easy to measure. Especially when you do not know someones IQ score or have any actual documentation to rigorously evaluate their intellectual capacity.

This is a great article. It was instructional seeing the varied posts, especially the ones criticizing it. Sadly I have to say that in particular the post by- Posted by: Emily | June 26, 2019 at 08:55 PM - is very stupid. It may sound like I'm kidding but it is true. Why? For one, she, like many others missed the point of this article completely. Second, the author tries to use clearly known facts to use as examples of "stupid" behavior yet many here where insulted by their use. Meaning they're the ones stupid enough to not see the verifiable stupid idea being used as an example. Herein lies the crux of the article, once both parties realize they're incapable of communicating with each other because their perceived realities are incompatible, each then believes the other to be Stupid.

There is one caveat, though, there does exist one real world with a real set of facts. Some know these facts and others for whatever reason just can't acknowledge or comprehend them, thus living in an alternate reality. These are the ones referred to as Stupid.

CORRECTION, I am responding to:

Posted by: Cindy | November 03, 2019 at 12:53 AM

Life is like a box of chocolates....

You never know when you'll end up in a stupid paradox.

No. I’m saying, “Why don’t you read a book?”

My dad has a really bad habit of calling everyone stupid when he gets mad at them. I think it bothers him that others (including myself) have had more education than he had had and it bruises his ego in some areas of his life. I know I'm not stupid because I have won many awards in both high school and college as well, and I have a great career to boot. In fact, I had to take both a written and practical licensing exam to get where I am now. No stupid person could accomplish that.

One thing my dad hates most in the world is swearing (even though he does this himself). In order to get him to stop insulting others or even yourself, what usually works is when you reply with something along the lines of "Nah, I'm not. F*** off." He'll shout at you not to swear, and I just tell him not to call me stupid and I won't.

It's worked like a charm and he hasn't called me nor anyone else stupid in months. I know many people out there will find it highly disrespectful to swear at a parent, but I find it disrespectful when parents resort to insults for no apparent reason.

As a Behavioral Therapist I will state you need to go back to the drawing board. Articles like this should be informative and not alienate any class of reader. By you bringing in your political agenda makes me question your professionalisms. You failed as a sociologist. You get a F for unrelated issues that come from your own agenda.

I thought your article was good. I think it's funny that some who commented, take it personally.

Using the definition given, my spouse IS stupid. Thus there are probably many others who are on this planet. Ron White has it correct . . . "You can't fix stupid." I have tried for more than forty years.

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